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Non-Fiction Text Analysis: Practical Tips for GCSE English Language

Analysing non-fiction texts is an important skill for your GCSE English Language exam this article and video explain the subject and how to approach your revision - this advice comes from a Qualified Teacher and GCSE Examiner (the same one who presents our on-demand course).

Non-fiction texts can be modern or historical, and they present true and fact-based information we encounter in everyday life.

The skills needed to analyse non-fiction texts are similar to those used for fiction texts, involving identifying key points and specific details. Skills like skimming and scanning, along with understanding implicit and explicit information, are also relevant for non-fiction analysis.

In the video above, our GCSE English teacher provides an example of a non-fiction text and how to analyse it in terms of its form, language style, target audience, and purpose.

Students may encounter a variety of non-fiction texts. The specific texts can vary depending on the exam board and the chosen course, but some common types of non-fiction texts students might encounter include:


These can be news articles, opinion pieces, or feature articles found in newspapers, magazines, or online platforms. They cover a wide range of topics and are meant to inform, persuade, or entertain readers.


Non-fiction essays cover various subjects and can have argumentative, persuasive, or informative purposes. They often require critical thinking and analysis.


These are structured documents presenting information and findings on a specific topic. They might be scientific reports, research papers, or business reports.

Biographies and Autobiographies:

These are accounts of someone's life, either written by themselves (autobiography) or by someone else (biography).


Speeches are formal talks given by individuals on various occasions. They may have persuasive, inspirational, or informative elements.


Non-fiction letters can be formal (e.g., business letters) or informal (e.g., personal letters).

Leaflets and Brochures:

These are promotional materials used to inform or persuade about a product, service, or event.

Travel Writing:

Accounts of someone's experiences while traveling, which might include travelogues or guides.

Historical Documents:

Excerpts from historical texts, diaries, or primary sources.

Adverts and Advertisements:

Marketing materials that aim to promote products or services.

Instructions and Manuals:

Step-by-step guides or manuals providing directions on how to use or do something.

Websites and Blogs:

Non-fiction texts found online, such as blog posts, online articles, or informative web pages.

These are just some examples, and the actual texts encountered in GCSE English Language can vary from year to year. It's essential for students to be familiar with various non-fiction text types, as they may be asked to analyse, interpret, and respond to them in their exams.

Practical tips focused on non-fiction text analysis for GCSE English Language

Here are our tip along with information on what students might be asked to do regarding "fiction texts" in their exams:

1. Understand Non-Fiction Texts: Familiarize yourself with various types of non-fiction texts, such as articles, reports, speeches, and letters. Pay attention to their structures, language styles, and purposes.

2. Identify Main Points: Train yourself to quickly identify the main points and arguments in non-fiction texts. Highlight or annotate important information for easier reference during analysis.

3. Recognize Persuasive Techniques: Learn to spot persuasive techniques used by authors, such as rhetorical questions, emotive language, and the use of statistics or expert opinions to support their claims.

4. Analyse Language Devices: Understand how language devices, like metaphors, similes, and imagery, are used to enhance the impact of the text and convey the author's message effectively.

5. Consider the Target Audience: Analyse who the intended audience is for the non-fiction text and how the language and content are tailored to appeal to that specific audience.

6. Evaluate the Author's Tone: Determine the author's tone and attitude towards the subject matter. Is it informative, persuasive, critical, or empathetic?

7. Compare Multiple Viewpoints: When analysing non-fiction texts that discuss a specific topic, compare different viewpoints presented by different authors. Consider the strengths and weaknesses of each perspective.

8. Practice Close Reading: Practice close reading of non-fiction texts, paying attention to details, implicit messages, and the impact of each sentence on the overall text.

9. Answering Exam Questions: Understand the different question types that might be asked about non-fiction texts in the GCSE English Language exam. These may include identifying the purpose, audience, tone, and language techniques used in the text.

10. Compare Non-Fiction with Fiction: Be aware of the key differences between non-fiction and fiction texts. In the exam, you might be asked to compare the language, style, and techniques used in both types of texts.

11. Plan Your Responses: Before writing, spend some time planning your responses to ensure clarity and coherence. Consider structuring your analysis with an introduction, body paragraphs, and a conclusion.

12. Practice Writing Essays: Practice writing essays that analyse non-fiction texts, ensuring you provide evidence and examples to support your points.

By focusing on these tips and practicing regularly, you'll build the skills necessary to excel in analysing non-fiction texts in your GCSE English Language exam. Additionally, remember to review fiction texts' characteristics and techniques, as you might encounter questions comparing the two types of texts in your exams.

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